Scenery vocabulary

The coast

Often at the edge of the sea there are cliffs (high mountains), which give a great view over the sea. But they can also be dangerous, especially if they are eroded, when rocks and earth fall away into the sea. Most people prefer sandy beaches rather than pebble beaches (beaches with small stones). The coastline can be straignt, or it can have bays which are often semi-circular in shape.


Mountain ranges are spectacular as you can often see snow-capped peaks against the skyline. From the top of a mountain (the summit or the peak), there are breathtaking views. Not much grows on mountains, as generally the terrain (ground) is rocky, but the air is often pure. However, the valleys (low areas encircled by the mountains) are more fertile.


From the foothills of the mountains (the small hills nearest mountains), the scenery inland tends to be less dramatic with rolling hills and open countryside. You can find more farmland, but also forests or woods (smaller forests). The land is generally irrigated by rivers or lakes (areas of water which are enclosed) and streams (narrow paths of water).

In some countries, there are vast areas of open, flat land called plains (or prairies) which are used to grow various crops such as wheat (the grain used to make flour for bread.)


extremely large

having no limit
opp: Bounded

extremely large

In the centre of the hall stood a colossal wooden statue, decorated in ivory and gold.

extremely large

an enormous car/house

covering a large area; having a great range

a school with extensive grounds

extremely large

a gigantic statue

The cost has been gigantic.

extremely large in area, size, amount, etc.
syn: huge
ex a vast area of forest.

(formal) to large, great etc. to be measured
ex to cause immeasurable harm

extremely large or great
syn: enormous
ex there is still an immense amount of work to be done

very small in size or amount
ex only tiny minorities hold such extreme views.

1_very large, heavy and solid
ex the massive walls of the castle

2_extremely large or serious
ex the explosion made a massive hole in the ground


extremely good, wonderful
synomim: fantastic, explendid
ex this will be a marvellous oportunity for her

(of a place, building, scene) pretty, especially in a way that looks old-fashioned
synomim :quaint
ex a picturesque cottage, village
this inn is picturesquely situated on the bancks of the river

1_extremely clean and tidy
synomim: spotless
ex an immaculated uniform, room

(of a room or building) very large and impressive; like a palace
synomim: esplendid

1_having a lot of people or too many people
ex in spring the place is crowded with skiers
2_full of something
ex a room crowded with books

1_of the present time or recent times
syn: contemporary
ex the modern industrial world

extremely attractive and impressive; deserving praise
synomim: splendid

1_extremely atractive or impressive
synomim: beautiful
ex a stunning view of the lake

covered with or containnig sand
ex a sandy beach /sandy soil


If a place is crowded, it is full of people

By ten o’clock the bar was crowded.

important or likely to be important in history

historic buildings


containing or having experience of people and things from many different parts of the world

New York is a highly cosmopolitan city.

describes a place which is not attractive because a lot of tourists visit it and it is full of things for them to buy and do

This used to be an attractive seaside town, but now it’s become very touristy.

in or related to industry, or having a lot of industry and factories, etc

industrial output

industrial expansion

an industrial landscape/nation

If a place is deserted, there are no people in it

a deserted building/street

The coastal resorts are deserted (= do not have many visitors) in winter.

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